This interest can also be seen, of course, in her translated texts. All of those men, they write,. A worthwhile play will move its spectators to embrace virtues of patriotism and self-restraint and to reject bad habits. Nonetheless, they begin their discussion of differences with formal considerations.
Playwrights from the two nations also use source material differently. The English tendency toward variety holds true in matters of prosody as well. Whereas French playwrights have traditionally used rhymed couplets, for example, English ones have more frequently opted for blank verse.
The Wouters account for this English preference:. Since the Wouters are writing for a French audience, it is, of course, the English taste for disorder that they must explain. They do so by looking to what they see as the essential nature of the English people.
It is so difficult to enliven an English audience, the Wouters add regretfully, that dramatists are forced to make stylistic sacrifices. According to the ancient physiological theory to which Burton subscribed, the human body was composed of four humors black bile, yellow bile, blood, and phlegm ; melancholy was an ailment caused by an excess of black bile, which led to a state of sadness and lethargy.
Vapors, by this same physiology, referred to a feeling of faintness brought about by exhaled humors rising to the brain. The Wouters remind their readers that comedy and tragedy respectively, when properly written and performed, could function as a much-needed antidote to these common English maladies. They provide translations of plays of both genres in their collection. They explain,.
- Help Me Rhonda;
- The Decoder (The Decoder Series).
- Aqua Babies Speaking Swahili?
As further illustration, the Wouters observe that English plays, much like English gardens, remain closer to nature than their French equivalents. The Wouters, it would seem, disapprove of this trend toward a more natural style, whether in the garden or on the stage; as translators, they promise to cloak the nakedness of English style in order to protect delicate French sensibilities.
Indeed, the changes the Wouters make to the plays they translate have much more to do with this cloaking of bare nature than with formal revisions. Their lengthy discussion of differences between French and English styles ultimately serves more to justify the fact that the Wouters make significant changes to the plays they translate than to describe the actual nature of these changes.
In fact, the Wouters follow their source plays closely, scene by scene and line by line. Their main alterations are all lexical in nature and seem to result more from a vision of theater as a school of manners and morals than from considerations of national character.
Dix polars à dévorer toutes affaires cessantes - L'Express
Miss in her Teens , the work that concerns us here, was first performed in London in There is another complication, however. In order to rid herself of these men respectably, now that the captain is back, Miss Biddy, with the help of her clever maid Tag, tries to goad them into fighting each other so that one of them will be killed and the other will be either executed as a murderer or forced to flee.
If the suitors refuse to fight for her hand, she will be able to dismiss them both for cowardice. A close reading of their language, however, reveals substantial, if subtle, changes. According to Nicole Bonvalet, this kind of adjustment on a lexical level was typical of translations into French in that period. By eliminating these expressions, the Wouters promote a system of values in which communication between family members never sinks below a certain level of respect or decorum.
Their insistence upon titles promotes a similar kind of respect, in this case explicitly linked to class. Class thus becomes a more salient category in the French play than in the English one. Perhaps most obviously, they eliminate virtually all oaths making reference to the devil or damnation. Interestingly, though, the Wouters do not hesitate to have their characters use the weaker, perhaps even dated, terms morbleu and parbleu , apparently sufficiently distanced from their original denotations so as to seem innocuous.
Guerre ne sert que de tourment line The political nature of this exchange was for French eyes only. The survival of these two different versions of the poem also strengthens the case for the application of the French poem as political lobbying in real life. His case is concluded, as the refrain signifies, En bons termes ma matiere.
Prehistoric Fiction Bibliography
The double senses of this financial debt or ransom money and moral debt in this declaration are only accessible in the original French poem. However, in his next epistle to Bourgogne the poet explains his need for continued secrecy in ways that would be difficult to interpret except in a political context. He warns his new ally about a contingent, but necessary double bluff: The poet insists that this double dealing is merely tactical, and that his friend should continue to believe that he will be loyal and true to him all his life lines 5—8. This explanation seems intended to reassure the duke, but it also emphasizes the dubious nature of the rhetorical gamesmanship, encoded in love talk, that has so far protected the political declaration of loyalty.
Furthermore, the poet instructs Bourgogne that he in his turn should also feign his true opinion so that no one will suspect the true nature of their love: By drawing attention to the mask he has been forced to wear, and will have to wear for a little longer, the poet risks alienating his new ally unless he can inveigle him to join the double game by taking him into his confidence. Their planned arrangement for a go-between who can communicate without writing may seem necessary but it also extends the tactical parallel with an illicit love affair.
There is no way out of this impasse unless the rhetorical stakes are raised higher. An oath is a serious and binding utterance so the poet maker invokes his divine maker to vouch for the integrity of his word and deed, however playfully his loyalty may be expressed. Viau used his art to save his life and thereby became a celebrity prisoner in print. He was thought to have been the author of satirical verses printed in November in a volume which had contained a preliminary poem attributed to him. Viau described this cell as a stinking hellhole with walls running with damp: Viau remained in prison for nearly two years relying on his wits in a defence strategy that involved writing and publishing poetry.
These works are addressed to many powerful people who might be persuaded to offer him support; he also expressed his penitence which was at least politic. He had also managed to arrange the distribution of his prison poems in separate pamphlets that were sold at bookstalls on the Pont Neuf, within hailing distance of the Conciergerie. Through these publications, en livrets , he became a celebrity dissident whose writing attracted public attention to his circumstances.
In prison he was given the works of St Augustine to read; Viau promptly used the venerable self-impression of this penitent convert in constructing a literary representation of his own penitence. In his verse petition to Louis XIII, Viau also explored a political theme that widened his concerns to include the viability of the rule of law in France, which the Jesuits he warned , with their foreign, inquisition-like procedures were in danger of subverting.
Since this would affect the king as well as the poet in prison, he urged Louis to look beyond the particular case:.
Aïe Aïe Aïe !
However, if the king does not help him, winter will set him free by killing him: This is a cannily overt bargaining ploy; the prisoner claims that he only asks for light in order to see the king again; and he only wants his liberty in order to fulfil his duty to praise the king:. In a playful irony he argued that it was time heaven punished the misdeeds of a flatterer of the court, thereby apparently accusing himself, as well as the court, of hypocrisy:. The slipperiness of tone and ambiguity of the referents give these verses a tension and excitement that is potentially risky, yet also lively and humorous.
He threatens that his vengeance in verse will prevent honorable people from envying any of them:. His only weapon is verse which can be amusingly double-edged even in serious self-defence. Other individuals were also addressed in petitions that flattered their recipients by appearing to separate them from inferior hypocrites. Yet it also created expectations of argument and philosophical discussion that lifted the forensic rhetoric of these occasional poems beyond their specific context.
The poet asks the muses, as sisters of the sun god, to hurry up: By contrast, he regrets that the source of his creativity is frozen solid, and, paradoxically, that the terrors of the tomb in which he is immured or perhaps his fears of death render him speechless:. He recognized that his own muse and poetic voice were struggling in prison: Yet he pleaded with fellow poets not to judge his work too harshly because if they were in his position their muses would also be devastated: He insists that he needs their help to avenge himself against his enemies who are the enemies of all poets.
Beginning with Malherbe line 92 , he addresses other poets by name, urging them to make common cause with him for the sake of their art. Yet the pragmatic utility of this poem — an urgent rhetorical means to a necessary end — has drawn criticism from normally sympathetic scholars. While his effigy was being burnt in Paris and in the sanctuary provided at Chantilly by the duchess of Montmorency, Viau had begun to write a sequence of ten odes celebrating the estate as a reflexion of the superior taste, and humane values of its generous owners: La Maison de Sylvie.
The speaker is transported there in spirit and ravished by desire for the spirit of this idyllic place where spring always lasts at least half the year and his muse holds him spellbound.
Odes 7—10 dwell at length on the pleasures of this alternative world of allegorical perfection, inhabited by melodious birds and praiseworthy patrons. This elegant panegyric offered thanks for benefits received in the past and encouragement for future actions by his patrons in the expectation that he would not be forgotten. The value of the poem is also perceived as consolation for the poet whose words and memories of place and other poetry had helped him to resist the fear, anxiety and pain induced by imprisonment.
The writer resisted persecution by reinforcing his sense of personal integrity. The prisoner represents his consolation in writing about their past life as a means to purge his rage against his Jesuit attackers. Yet, as in the panegyric praising the owners of Chantilly, Viau was also expressing his appreciation of his family in order to persuade his brother to work for his release.
The first and last stanzas in which the poet contrasts his present miseries with anticipation of his future homecoming mirror and largely repeat each other providing a frame for the entire letter; the form gives substance to the argument that change which is a constant principle in nature must come soon to relieve his suffering:. The second stanza quickly establishes the premise that there must soon be some resolution to the metaphorical storm that the prison poet endures: Yet, the secret flux of the tides is known by God, and the suffering poet acknowledges that nothing happens without the will of God, against which his enemies can do nothing.
This philosophy had consoled the prisoner persona created by Boethius, and countless others. This spiritual testimony would have been a convenient defence against earlier public charges of religious scepticism, but it also prepares readers for the philosophical turning point in the poem.